Writing inside the autobiography, the Nobel laureate Franзois Jacob described how the process of science was actually quite different from that which was eventually written and published when you look at the peer-reviewed literature. 1 He related how Sydney Brenner to his research and Matthew Meselsen initially had setbacks when they tried to identify a hypothesized intermediary molecule that took information from genes and allowed protein to be synthesized inside cells. He along with his colleagues attempted, without luck, to demonstrate that the factor, which we know as mRNA, attached itself to ribosomes, the cell’s protein-manufacturing machinery today. So one day, discouraged, Jacob said, he and Brenner took a rest and went along to a Pacific Ocean beach, where Brenner at some time exclaimed that magnesium was necessary for binding.
If the two gone back to the laboratory, they added enough magnesium to their experiments and then showed the factor associated with ribosomes. The mRNA would not attach to ribosomes without sufficient magnesium. The scientists had provided evidence for the existence of mRNA, which we now know transcribes information from DNA into a language that ribosomes can understand. Nevertheless the paper reporting the results, which appeared in Nature in 1961, was not a narrative that is historical of happened. The scientific paper explained mRNA’s binding to ribosomes as a function associated with the concentration of magnesium, without reference to the eureka moment in the beach.
Jacob compared the limitations of a scientific publication to capture the “truth” associated with scientific process to a snapshot of a horse race. He said that scientific writing transforms and formalizes research and substitutes order when it comes to agitation and disorder that animate life in a laboratory.
Articles are foundational to for academic recognition
Although academic papers may not reflect the “reality” associated with research process, peer-reviewed scholarly and literature that is scientific a key repository for the advancement of society’s knowledge. Academicians and researchers submit their ideas and findings to journals. Journal editors and, generally, ad hoc peer reviewers for the journal then criticize the draft manuscripts, locating the strengths and weaknesses associated with work. On the basis of the input, authors revise their writing, which ultimately gets published in a printed or, these days, online publication. For the authors of scholarly works, articles provide credit for promotions, grants, and recognition. Committees will review a publication record when tenure that is considering funding for brand new research projects, and awards do my homework for me.
C. Authors have a responsibility to write
Once material is published in the literature, the world — including other scholars, investigators, as well as the public — has access to it. Professionals in a given discipline are able to challenge or corroborate the findings that are new. A few ideas and results quickly become part of society’s collective wisdom, while some remain controversial, challenging the status quo. Findings in medicine appearing in scientific publications tend to be reported within the media and now have particular importance as the public will follow health recommendations according to such results. Indeed, scientists and academicians who obtain government funding with their work have a responsibility towards the public to explain their findings.
D. Different ideas about authorship exist
As research has be a little more complex and multidisciplinary, the need for many different types of experts to execute biomedical and other forms of studies has grown. Investigators today collaborate on projects with colleagues from across the country and all over the world, using the services of senior scientists, clinicians, undergraduate and students that are graduate technicians, postdoctoral fellows, medical students and residents, statisticians, as well as other professionals. Each brings different expectations and even cultural experiences to issues such as who should really be included as an author on a paper for publication.
Attention to authorship increased with the Darsee and Slutsky cases in the 1980’s
As Franзois Jacob alluded, the entire process of writing, editing, and reviewing an article might not be as scientific as the extensive research reported within the manuscripts. Problems can arise when people have different ideas about who should be an author on a paper. Some say that being responsible for the whole content of a write-up should really be a responsibility that is minimal an author whose name is on a paper. Others say that, given the multifaceted nature of research, one individual may possibly not be able to take responsibility that is full. Some believe that a clinician who provided the blood samples for a study, without which the research could not have been done, must be an author. Others feel that the clinician should receive an acknowledgment.
II. That is an author?
A. Discuss authorship in advance with colleagues and supervisors
Journals usually have guidelines for authors regarding how they should submit a manuscript to your publication. However the procedure for responsible authorship begins before the writing of a manuscript, with good study that is scientific sufficient reason for researchers abiding by ethical guidelines regarding conflicts of interests and make use of animals and human subjects. Another aspect that is important of that should occur prior to the writing of this paper is for potential authors to know the insurance policy of the laboratory, department, and institution with regards to what constitutes an author.
When a graduate student first comes to a laboratory, or a postdoctoral fellow or technician interviews for a job, or colleagues collaborate in a multidisciplinary project, a discussion about the practice of credit and authorship for research work should occur as quickly as possible. Each party should have a knowledge of what type of work merits authorship, with the knowledge that, since the scientific study progresses, that is an author plus the position of a name in a summary of authors may change. Each party also needs to have an awareness of who among many authors could have primary responsibility for the writing, submission, and editing work required for a paper. First authorship is essential in the biomedical sciences, as the first author’s name is used by Index Medicus, the major biomedical periodical database, to cite the paper. But different disciplines assign different meanings towards the keeping of authors. The position of last author might be reserved for the principal investigator or department chair in a few fields. In others, the senior person is first, aided by the last author having the smallest contribution.